There are unpleasant items to discuss when buying or selling a home, and the pinnacle of those is obviously the septic or sewer system. When a house is connected to the public system for waste removal, that is the sewer system. When a house is not connected to a public system, it is referred to as a septic system.
In order to properly assess a sewer pipe from the house to the public sewer system, it is best to have a camera system to inspect the inside of the pipe. This is most useful on older homes, (about 30 or more years old) as some of the pipes were made from terracotta or cast iron. These pipes are more susceptible to damage from freezing and thawing, and roots. A damaged pipe can lead to a backup of sewerage within the home
Septic systems are more complex because there is at minimum a septic holding tank, a leach field, and the piping between these. On occasion, there is a pump and a distribution box. Because of this complexity, a septic test can provide a valuable assessment of the system to determine if any of the components have failed.